Connecting Elliptic Curves with Finite Fields

So here we are. We’ve studied the general properties of elliptic curves, written a program for elliptic curve arithmetic over the rational numbers, and taken a long detour to get some familiarity with finite fields (the mathematical background and a program that implements arbitrary finite field arithmetic).

And now we want to get back on track and hook our elliptic curve program up with our finite field program to make everything work. And indeed, for most cases it’s just that simple! For example, take the point P = (2,1) on the elliptic curve y = x^3 + x + 1 with coefficients in \mathbb{Z}/5. Using purely code produced in previous posts, we can do arithmetic:

>>> F5 = FiniteField(5, 1)
>>> C = EllipticCurve(a=F5(1), b=F5(1))
>>> P = Point(C, F5(2), F5(1))
>>> P
(2 (mod 5), 1 (mod 5))
>>> 2*P
(2 (mod 5), 4 (mod 5))
>>> 3*P
Ideal

Here’s an example of the same curve y^2 = x^3 + x + 1 with coefficients over the finite field of order 25 \mathbb{F}_{5^2}.

>>> F25 = FiniteField(5,2)
>>> F25.idealGenerator
3 + 0 t^1 + 1 t^2
>>> curve = EllipticCurve(a=F25([1]), b=F25([1]))
>>> x = F25([2,1])
>>> y = F25([0,2])
>>> y*y - x*x*x - x - 1
0 ∈ F_{5^2}
>>> curve.testPoint(x,y)
True
>>> P = Point(curve, x, y)
>>> -P
(2 + 1 t^1, 0 + 3 t^1)
>>> P+P
(3 + 1 t^1, 2)
>>> 4*P
(3 + 2 t^1, 4 + 4 t^1)
>>> 9*P
Ideal

There are some subtle issues, though, in that we shouldn’t use the code we have to work over any finite field. But we’ve come very far and covered a lot of technical details, so let’s briefly remember how we got here.

Taking a Step Back

At the beginning there was only \mathbb{Q}, the field of rational numbers. We had a really nice geometric picture of elliptic curves over this field, and using that picture we developed an algorithm for (geometrically) adding points.

add-points-exampleIf we assume the equation of the elliptic curve had this nice form (the so-called Weierstrass normal form, y^2 = x^3 + ax + b), then we were able to translate the geometric algorithm into an algebraic one. This made it possible to write a program to perform the additions, and this was our first programmatic milestone. Along the way, we learned about groups and projective geometry, which I explained was the proper mathematical setting for elliptic curves. In that setting, we saw that for most fields, every elliptic curve could be modified into one in Weierstrass normal form without changing the algebraic structure of the set of solutions. Moreover, we saw that you can replace the field \mathbb{Q} with the field of your choice. The set of solutions to an elliptic curve still forms a group and the same algebraic point-adding algorithm works. It’s just an interesting quirk of mathematics that one way to represent elements of finite fields are as polynomial remainders when dividing by a “prime” polynomial (analogous to modular arithmetic with integers). So we spent a while actually implementing finite fields in terms of this representation.

The reader has probably heard of this, but in practice one uses a (very large) finite field for the coefficients of their elliptic curve. Often this is \mathbb{Z}/p for some really large prime p, or the field of 2^m elements for some large integer m. But one would naturally complain: there are so many (infinitely many!) finite fields to choose from! Which one should we use, and how did they choose these?

As with most engineering problems the answer is a trade-off, in this case between efficiency and security. Arithmetic is faster in fields of characteristic 2 (and easy to implement at the hardware level!) but a lot is known about the finite field of 2^m elements. In fact, if you are sloppy in picking m you’ll get no security at all! One prominent example is the so-called Weil descent attack, which breaks security assumptions for elliptic curve cryptography when m is not prime. These attacks use some sophisticated machinery, but this is how it goes. An abstract mathematical breakthrough can immediately invalidate cryptography based on certain elliptic curves.

But before we get neck-deep in cryptography we have an even bigger problem: for some finite fields, not every elliptic curve has a Weierstrass normal form! So our program isn’t expressive enough to represent all elliptic curves we might want to. We could avoid these curves in our applications, but that would be unnecessarily limiting. With a bit more careful work, we can devise a more general algorithm (and a different normal form) that works for all fields. But let’s understand the problem first.

In general, you can have an elliptic curve of the form \sum_{i+j=3} a_{i,j}x^iy^j = 0. That is, it’s just a really general degree 3 polynomial in two variables. If we assume the discriminant of this polynomial is nonzero, we’ll get a smooth curve. And then to get to the Weierstrass normal form involves a bunch of changes of variables. The problem is that the algebraic manipulations you do require you to multiply and divide by 2 and 3. In a field of either characteristic, these operations are either destructive (multiplying by zero) or totally illegal (dividing by zero), and they ruin Weierstrass’s day.

So what can we do?

Well it turns out that there is a more general Weierstrass normal form, unsurprisingly called the generalized Weierstrass normal form. It looks like this

\displaystyle y^2 + a_1 xy + a_3y = x^3 + a_2x^2 + a_4x + a_6

The same geometric idea of drawing lines works for this curve as well. It’s just that now the formula is way more complicated. It involves computing a bunch of helper constants and computing far more arithmetic. My colleague Daniel Ngheim was kind enough to code up the algorithm, and here it is

    def __add__(self, Q):
        if isinstance(Q, Ideal):
            return Point(self.curve, self.x, self.y)

        a1,a2,a3,a4,a6 = (self.curve.a1, self.curve.a2, self.curve.a3, self.curve.a4, self.curve.a6)

        if self.x == Q.x:
            x = self.x
            if self.y + Q.y + a1*x + a3 == 0:
                return Ideal(self.curve)
            else:
                c = ((3*x*x + 2*a2*x + a4 - a1*self.y) / (2*self.y + a1*x + a3))
                d = (-(x*x*x) + a4*x + 2*a6 - a3*self.y) / (2*self.y + a1*x + a3)
                Sum_x = c*c + a1*c - a2 - 2*self.x
                Sum_y = -(c + a1) * Sum_x - d - a3
                return Point(self.curve, Sum_x, Sum_y)
        else:
            c =  (Q.y - self.y) / (Q.x - self.x)
            d =  (self.y*Q.x - Q.y*self.x) / (Q.x - self.x)
            Sum_x = c*c + a1*c - a2 - self.x - Q.x
            Sum_y = -(c + a1)*Sum_x - d - a3
            return Point(self.curve, Sum_x, Sum_y)

   def __neg__(self):
      return Point(self.curve, self.x, -self.y - self.curve.a1*self.x - self.curve.a3)

I trust that the devoted reader could derive this algorithm by hand, but for a more detailed derivation see the book of Silverman (it’s a graduate level text, but the point is that if you’re not really serious about implementing elliptic curve cryptography then you shouldn’t worry about this more general algorithm).

One might start to wonder: are there still other forms of elliptic curves that we could use to get around some of the difficulties of the Weierstrass normal form? The answer is yes, but we’ll defer their discussion to a future post. The brief explanation is that through a different choice of variable changes you can get to a different form of curve, and the algorithms you get from writing out the algebraic equations for adding points are slightly more efficient.

For the remainder of this series we’ll just work with one family of finite fields, those fields of the form \mathbb{Z}/p for some large p. There is one particularly famous elliptic curve over this field that is used in some of the most secure applications in existence, and this will roughly be our target. In either case, we have provided the combined elliptic curve and finite field code (and the generalized elliptic curve class) on this blog’s Github page.

So in the next post we’ll actually start talking about cryptography and how to use elliptic curves to do things like generate a shared secret key.

Until then!

Programming with Finite Fields

Back when I was first exposed to programming language design, I decided it would be really cool if there were a language that let you define your own number types and then do all your programming within those number types. And since I get excited about math, I think of really exotic number types (Boolean rings, Gaussian integers, Octonions, oh my!). I imagined it would be a language feature, so I could do something like this:

use gaussianintegers as numbers

x = 1 + i
y = 2 - 3i
print(x*y)

z = 2 + 3.5i     # error

I’m not sure why I thought this would be so cool. Perhaps I felt like I would be teaching a computer math. Or maybe the next level of abstraction in playing god by writing programs is to play god by designing languages (and I secretly satisfy a massive god complex by dictating the actions of my computer).

But despite not writing a language of my own, programming with weird number systems still has a special place in my heart. It just so happens that we’re in the middle of a long series on elliptic curves, and in the next post we’ll actually implement elliptic curve arithmetic over a special kind of number type (the finite field). In this post, we’ll lay the groundwork by implementing number types in Python that allow us to work over any finite field. This is actually a pretty convoluted journey, and to be totally rigorous we’d need to prove a bunch of lemmas, develop a bunch of ring theory, and prove the correctness of a few algorithms involving polynomials.

Instead of taking the long and winding road, we’ll just state the important facts with links to proofs, prove the easy stuff, and focus more heavily than usual on the particular Python implementation details. As usual, all of the code used in this post is available on this blog’s Github page.

Integers Modulo Primes

The simples kind of finite field is the set of integers modulo a prime. We’ve dealt with this number field extensively on this blog (in groups, rings, fields, with RSA, etc.), but let’s recall what it is. The modulo operator \mod (in programming it’s often denoted %) is a binary operation on integers such that x \mod y is the unique positive remainder of x when divided by y.

Definition: Let p be a prime number. The set \mathbb{Z}/p consists of the numbers \left \{ 0, 1, \dots, p-1 \right \}. If you endow it with the operations of addition (mod p) and multiplication (mod p), it forms a field.

To say it’s a field is just to say that arithmetic more or less behaves the way we expect it to, and in particular that every nonzero element has a (unique) multiplicative inverse. Making a number type for \mathbb{Z}/p in Python is quite simple.

def IntegersModP(p):
   class IntegerModP(FieldElement):
      def __init__(self, n):
         self.n = n % p
         self.field = IntegerModP

      def __add__(self, other): return IntegerModP(self.n + other.n)
      def __sub__(self, other): return IntegerModP(self.n - other.n)
      def __mul__(self, other): return IntegerModP(self.n * other.n)
      def __truediv__(self, other): return self * other.inverse()
      def __div__(self, other): return self * other.inverse()
      def __neg__(self): return IntegerModP(-self.n)
      def __eq__(self, other): return isinstance(other, IntegerModP) and self.n == other.n
      def __abs__(self): return abs(self.n)
      def __str__(self): return str(self.n)
      def __repr__(self): return '%d (mod %d)' % (self.n, self.p)

      def __divmod__(self, divisor):
         q,r = divmod(self.n, divisor.n)
         return (IntegerModP(q), IntegerModP(r))

      def inverse(self):
         ...?

   IntegerModP.p = p
   IntegerModP.__name__ = 'Z/%d' % (p)
   return IntegerModP

We’ve done a couple of things worth note here. First, all of the double-underscore methods are operator overloads, so they are called when one tries to, e.g., add two instances of this class together. We’ve also implemented a division algorithm via __divmod__ which computes a (quotient, remainder) pair for the appropriate division. The built in Python function divmod function does this for integers, and we can overload it for a custom type. We’ll write a more complicated division algorithm later in this post. Finally, we’re dynamically creating our class so that different primes will correspond to different types. We’ll come back to why this encapsulation is a good idea later, but it’s crucial to make our next few functions reusable and elegant.

Here’s an example of the class in use:

>>> mod7 = IntegersModP(7)
>>> mod7(3) + mod7(6)
2 (mod 7)

The last (undefined) function in the IntegersModP class, the inverse function, is our only mathematical hurdle. Luckily, we can compute inverses in a generic way, using an algorithm called the extended Euclidean algorithm. Here’s the mathematics.

Definition: An element d is called a greatest common divisor (gcd) of a,b if it divides both a and b, and for every other z dividing both a and b, z divides d. For \mathbb{Z}/p gcd’s and we denote it as \gcd(a,b). [1]

Note that we called it ‘a’ greatest common divisor. In general gcd’s need not be unique, though for integers one often picks the positive gcd. We’ll actually see this cause a tiny programmatic bug later in this post, but let’s push on for now.

Theorem: For any two integers a,b \in \mathbb{Z} there exist unique x,y \in \mathbb{Z} such that ax + by = \gcd(a,b).

We could beat around the bush and try to prove these things in various ways, but when it comes down to it there’s one algorithm of central importance that both computes the gcd and produces the needed linear combination x,y. The algorithm is called the Euclidean algorithm. Here is a simple version that just gives the gcd.

def gcd(a, b):
   if abs(a) < abs(b):
      return gcd(b, a)

   while abs(b) > 0:
      q,r = divmod(a,b)
      a,b = b,r

   return a

This works by the simple observation that \gcd(a, aq+r) = \gcd(a,r) (this is an easy exercise to prove directly). So the Euclidean algorithm just keeps applying this rule over and over again: take the remainder when dividing the bigger argument by the smaller argument until the remainder becomes zero. Then the \gcd(x,0) = x because everything divides zero.

Now the so-called ‘extended’ Euclidean algorithm just keeps track of some additional data as it goes (the partial quotients and remainders). Here’s the algorithm.

def extendedEuclideanAlgorithm(a, b):
   if abs(b) > abs(a):
      (x,y,d) = extendedEuclideanAlgorithm(b, a)
      return (y,x,d)

   if abs(b) == 0:
      return (1, 0, a)

   x1, x2, y1, y2 = 0, 1, 1, 0
   while abs(b) > 0:
      q, r = divmod(a,b)
      x = x2 - q*x1
      y = y2 - q*y1
      a, b, x2, x1, y2, y1 = b, r, x1, x, y1, y

   return (x2, y2, a)

Indeed, the reader who hasn’t seen this stuff before is encouraged to trace out a run for the numbers 4864, 3458. Their gcd is 38 and the two integers are 32 and -45, respectively.

How does this help us compute inverses? Well, if we want to find the inverse of a modulo p, we know that their gcd is 1. So compute the x,y such that ax + py = 1, and then reduce both sides mod p. You get ax + 0 = 1 \mod p, which means that x \mod p is the inverse of a. So once we have the extended Euclidean algorithm our inverse function is trivial to write!

def inverse(self):
   x,y,d = extendedEuclideanAlgorithm(self.n, self.p)
   return IntegerModP(x)

And indeed it works as expected:

>>> mod23 = IntegersModP(23)
>>> mod23(7).inverse()
10 (mod 23)
>>> mod23(7).inverse() * mod23(7)
1 (mod 23)

Now one very cool thing, and something that makes some basic ring theory worth understanding, is that we can compute the gcd of any number type using the exact same code for the Euclidean algorithm, provided we implement an abs function and a division algorithm. Via a chain of relatively easy-to-prove lemmas, if your number type has enough structure (in particular, if it has a division algorithm that satisfies some properties), then greatest common divisors are well-defined, and the Euclidean algorithm gives us that special linear combination. And using the same trick above in finite fields, we can use the Euclidean algorithm to compute inverses.

But in order to make things work programmatically we need to be able to deal with the literal ints 0 and 1 in the algorithm. That is, we need to be able to silently typecast integers up to whatever number type we’re working with. This makes sense because all rings have 0 and 1, but it requires a bit of scaffolding to implement. In particular, typecasting things sensibly is really difficult if you aren’t careful. And the problems are compounded in a language like Python that blatantly ignores types whenever possible. [2]

So let’s take a quick break to implement a tiny type system with implicit typecasting.

[1] The reader familiar with our series on category theory will recognize this as the product of two integers in a category whose arrows represent divisibility. So by abstract nonsense, this proves that gcd’s are unique up to multiplication by a unit in any ring.
[2] In the process of writing the code for this post, I was sorely missing the stronger type systems of Java and Haskell. Never thought I’d say that, but it’s true.

A Tiny Generic Type System

The main driving force behind our type system will be a decorator called @typecheck. We covered decorators toward the end of our primer on dynamic programming, but in short a decorator is a Python syntax shortcut that allows some pre- or post-processing to happen to a function in a reusable way. All you need to do to apply the pre/post-processing is prefix the function definition with the name of the decorator.

Our decorator will be called typecheck, and it will decorate binary operations on our number types. In its basic form, our type checker will work as follows: if the types of the two operands are the same, then the decorator will just pass them on through to the operator. Otherwise, it will try to do some typecasting, and if that fails it will raise exceptions with reckless abandon.

def typecheck(f):
   def newF(self, other):
      if type(self) is not type(other):
         try:
            other = self.__class__(other)
         except TypeError:
            message = 'Not able to typecast %s of type %s to type %s in function %s'
            raise TypeError(message % (other, type(other).__name__, type(self).__name__, f.__name__))
         except Exception as e:
            message = 'Type error on arguments %r, %r for functon %s. Reason:%s'
            raise TypeError(message % (self, other, f.__name__, type(other).__name__, type(self).__name__, e))

      return f(self, other)

   return newF

So this is great, but there are two issues. The first is that this will only silently typecast if the thing we’re casting is on the right-hand side of the expression. In other words, the following will raise an exception complaining that you can’t add ints to Mod7 integers.

>>> x = IntegersModP(7)(1)
>>> 1 + x

What we need are the right-hand versions of all the operator overloads. They are the same as the usual operator overloads, but Python gives preference to the left-hand operator overloads. Anticipating that we will need to rewrite these silly right-hand overloads for every number type, and they’ll all be the same, we make two common base classes.

class DomainElement(object):
   def __radd__(self, other): return self + other
   def __rsub__(self, other): return -self + other
   def __rmul__(self, other): return self * other

class FieldElement(DomainElement):
   def __truediv__(self, other): return self * other.inverse()
   def __rtruediv__(self, other): return self.inverse() * other
   def __div__(self, other): return self.__truediv__(other)
   def __rdiv__(self, other): return self.__rtruediv__(other)

And we can go ahead and make our IntegersModP a subclass of FieldElement. [3]

But now we’re wading into very deep waters. In particular, we know ahead of time that our next number type will be for Polynomials (over the integers, or fractions, or \mathbb{Z}/p, or whatever). And we’ll want to do silent typecasting from ints and IntegersModP to Polynomials! The astute reader will notice the discrepancy. What will happen if I try to do this?

>>> MyInteger() + MyPolynomial()

Let’s take this slowly: by our assumption both MyInteger and MyPolynomial have the __add__ and __radd__ functions defined on them, and each tries to typecast the other the appropriate type. But which is called? According to Python’s documentation if the left-hand side has an __add__ function that’s called first, and the right-hand sides’s __radd__ function is only sought if no __add__ function is found for the left operand.

Well that’s a problem, and we’ll deal with it in a half awkward and half elegant way. What we’ll do is endow our number types with an “operatorPrecedence” constant. And then inside our type checker function we’ll see if the right-hand operand is an object of higher precedence. If it is, we return the global constant NotImplemented, which Python takes to mean that no __add__ function was found, and it proceeds to look for __radd__. And so with this modification our typechecker is done. [4]

def typecheck(f):
   def newF(self, other):
      if (hasattr(other.__class__, 'operatorPrecedence') and
            other.__class__.operatorPrecedence > self.__class__.operatorPrecedence):
         return NotImplemented

      if type(self) is not type(other):
         try:
            other = self.__class__(other)
         except TypeError:
            message = 'Not able to typecast %s of type %s to type %s in function %s'
            raise TypeError(message % (other, type(other).__name__, type(self).__name__, f.__name__))
         except Exception as e:
            message = 'Type error on arguments %r, %r for functon %s. Reason:%s'
            raise TypeError(message % (self, other, f.__name__, type(other).__name__, type(self).__name__, e))

      return f(self, other)

   return newF

We add a default operatorPrecedence of 1 to the DomainElement base class. Now this function answers our earlier question of why we want to encapsulate the prime modulus into the IntegersModP class. If this typechecker is really going to be generic, we need to be able to typecast an int by passing the single int argument to the type constructor with no additional information! Indeed, this will be the same pattern for our polynomial class and the finite field class to follow.

Now there is still one subtle problem. If we try to generate two copies of the same number type from our number-type generator (in other words, the following code snippet), we’ll get a nasty exception.

>>> mod7 = IntegersModP(7)
>>> mod7Copy = IntegersModP(7)
>>> mod7(1) + mod7Copy(2)
... fat error ...

The reason for this is that in the type-checker we’re using the Python built-in ‘is’ which checks for identity, not semantic equality. To fix this, we simply need to memoize the IntegersModP function (and all the other functions we’ll use to generate number types) so that there is only ever one copy of a number type in existence at a time.

So enough Python hacking: let’s get on with implementing finite fields!

[3] This also compels us to make some slight modifications to the constructor for IntegersModP, but they’re not significant enough to display here. Check out the Github repo if you want to see.
[4] This is truly a hack, and we’ve considered submitting a feature request to the Python devs. It is conceivably useful for the operator-overloading aficionado. I’d be interested to hear your thoughts in the comments as to whether this is a reasonable feature to add to Python.

Polynomial Arithmetic

Recall from our finite field primer that every finite field can be constructed as a quotient of a polynomial ring with coefficients in \mathbb{Z}/p by some prime ideal. We spelled out exactly what this means in fine detail in the primer, so check that out before reading on.

Indeed, to construct a finite field we need to find some irreducible monic polynomial f with coefficients in \mathbb{Z}/p, and then the elements of our field will be remainders of arbitrary polynomials when divided by f. In order to determine if they’re irreducible we’ll need to compute a gcd. So let’s build a generic polynomial type with a polynomial division algorithm, and hook it into our gcd framework.

We start off in much the same way as with the IntegersModP:

# create a polynomial with coefficients in a field; coefficients are in
# increasing order of monomial degree so that, for example, [1,2,3]
# corresponds to 1 + 2x + 3x^2
@memoize
def polynomialsOver(field=fractions.Fraction):

   class Polynomial(DomainElement):
      operatorPrecedence = 2
      factory = lambda L: Polynomial([field(x) for x in L])

      def __init__(self, c):
         if type(c) is Polynomial:
            self.coefficients = c.coefficients
         elif isinstance(c, field):
            self.coefficients = [c]
         elif not hasattr(c, '__iter__') and not hasattr(c, 'iter'):
            self.coefficients = [field(c)]
         else:
            self.coefficients = c

         self.coefficients = strip(self.coefficients, field(0))

      def isZero(self): return self.coefficients == []

      def __repr__(self):
         if self.isZero():
            return '0'

         return ' + '.join(['%s x^%d' % (a,i) if i > 0 else '%s'%a
                              for i,a in enumerate(self.coefficients)])

      def __abs__(self): return len(self.coefficients)
      def __len__(self): return len(self.coefficients)
      def __sub__(self, other): return self + (-other)
      def __iter__(self): return iter(self.coefficients)
      def __neg__(self): return Polynomial([-a for a in self])

      def iter(self): return self.__iter__()
      def leadingCoefficient(self): return self.coefficients[-1]
      def degree(self): return abs(self) - 1

All of this code just lays down conventions. A polynomial is a list of coefficients (in increasing order of their monomial degree), the zero polynomial is the empty list of coefficients, and the abs() of a polynomial is one plus its degree. [5] Finally, instead of closing over a prime modulus, as with IntegersModP, we’re closing over the field of coefficients. In general you don’t have to have polynomials with coefficients in a field, but if they do come from a field then you’re guaranteed to get a sensible Euclidean algorithm. In the formal parlance, if k is a field then k[x] is a Euclidean domain. And for our goal of defining finite fields, we will always have coefficients from \mathbb{Z}/p, so there’s no problem.

Now we can define things like addition, multiplication, and equality using our typechecker to silently cast and watch for errors.

      @typecheck
      def __eq__(self, other):
         return self.degree() == other.degree() and all([x==y for (x,y) in zip(self, other)])

      @typecheck
      def __add__(self, other):
         newCoefficients = [sum(x) for x in itertools.zip_longest(self, other, fillvalue=self.field(0))]
         return Polynomial(newCoefficients)

      @typecheck
      def __mul__(self, other):
         if self.isZero() or other.isZero():
            return Zero()

         newCoeffs = [self.field(0) for _ in range(len(self) + len(other) - 1)]

         for i,a in enumerate(self):
            for j,b in enumerate(other):
               newCoeffs[i+j] += a*b

         return Polynomial(newCoeffs)

Notice that, if the underlying field of coefficients correctly implements the operator overloads, none of this depends on the coefficients. Reusability, baby!

And we can finish off with the division algorithm for polynomials.

      @typecheck
      def __divmod__(self, divisor):
         quotient, remainder = Zero(), self
         divisorDeg = divisor.degree()
         divisorLC = divisor.leadingCoefficient()

         while remainder.degree() >= divisorDeg:
            monomialExponent = remainder.degree() - divisorDeg
            monomialZeros = [self.field(0) for _ in range(monomialExponent)]
            monomialDivisor = Polynomial(monomialZeros + [remainder.leadingCoefficient() / divisorLC])

            quotient += monomialDivisor
            remainder -= monomialDivisor * divisor

         return quotient, remainder

Indeed, we’re doing nothing here but formalizing the grade-school algorithm for doing polynomial long division [6]. And we can finish off the function for generating this class by assigning the field member variable along with a class name. And we give it a higher operator precedence than the underlying field of coefficients so that an isolated coefficient is cast up to a constant polynomial.

@memoize
def polynomialsOver(field=fractions.Fraction):

   class Polynomial(DomainElement):
      operatorPrecedence = 2

      [... methods defined above ...]

   def Zero():
      return Polynomial([])

   Polynomial.field = field
   Polynomial.__name__ = '(%s)[x]' % field.__name__
   return Polynomial

We provide a modest test suite in the Github repository for this post, but here’s a sample test:

>>> Mod5 = IntegersModP(5)
>>> Mod11 = IntegersModP(11)
>>> polysOverQ = polynomialsOver(Fraction).factory
>>> polysMod5 = polynomialsOver(Mod5).factory
>>> polysMod11 = polynomialsOver(Mod11).factory
>>> polysOverQ([1,7,49]) / polysOverQ([7])
1/7 + 1 x^1 + 7 x^2
>>> polysMod5([1,7,49]) / polysMod5([7])
3 + 1 x^1 + 2 x^2
>>> polysMod11([1,7,49]) / polysMod11([7])
8 + 1 x^1 + 7 x^2

And indeed, the extended Euclidean algorithm works without modification, so we know our typecasting is doing what’s expected:

>>> p = polynomialsOver(Mod2).factory
>>> f = p([1,0,0,0,1,1,1,0,1,1,1]) # x^10 + x^9 + x^8 + x^6 + x^5 + x^4 + 1
>>> g = p([1,0,1,1,0,1,1,0,0,1])   # x^9 + x^6 + x^5 + x^3 + x^1 + 1
>>> theGcd = p([1,1,0,1]) # x^3 + x + 1
>>> x = p([0,0,0,0,1]) # x^4
>>> y = p([1,1,1,1,1,1]) # x^5 + x^4 + x^3 + x^2 + x + 1
>>> (x,y,theGcd) == extendedEuclideanAlgorithm(f, g)
True

[5] The mathematical name for the abs() function that we’re using is a valuation.
[6] One day we will talk a lot more about polynomial long division on this blog. You can do a lot of cool algebraic geometry with it, and the ideas there lead you to awesome applications like robot motion planning and automated geometry theorem proving.

Generating Irreducible Polynomials

Now that we’ve gotten Polynomials out of the way, we need to be able to generate irreducible polynomials over \mathbb{Z}/p of any degree we want. It might be surprising that irreducible polynomials of any degree exist [7], but in fact we know a lot more.

Theorem: The product of all irreducible monic polynomials of degree dividing m is equal to x^{p^m} - x.

This is an important theorem, but it takes a little bit more field theory than we have under our belts right now. You could summarize the proof by saying there is a one-to-one correspondence between elements of a field and monic irreducible polynomials, and then you say some things about splitting fields. You can see a more detailed proof outline here, but it assumes you’re familiar with the notion of a minimal polynomial. We will probably cover this in a future primer.

But just using the theorem we can get a really nice algorithm for determining if a polynomial f(x) of degree m is irreducible: we just look at its gcd with all the x^{p^k} - x for k smaller than m. If all the gcds are constants, then we know it’s irreducible, and if even one is a non-constant polynomial then it has to be irreducible. Why’s that? Because if you have some nontrivial gcd d(x) = \gcd(f(x), x^{p^k} - x) for k < m, then it’s a factor of f(x) by definition. And since we know all irreducible monic polynomials are factors of that this collection of polynomials, if the gcd is always 1 then there are no other possible factors to be divisors. (If there is any divisor then there will be a monic irreducible one!) So the candidate polynomial must be irreducible. In fact, with a moment of thought it’s clear that we can stop at k= m/2, as any factor of large degree will necessarily require corresponding factors of small degree. So the algorithm to check for irreducibility is just this simple loop:

def isIrreducible(polynomial, p):
   ZmodP = IntegersModP(p)
   poly = polynomialsOver(ZmodP).factory
   x = poly([0,1])
   powerTerm = x
   isUnit = lambda p: p.degree() == 0

   for _ in range(int(polynomial.degree() / 2)):
      powerTerm = powerTerm.powmod(p, polynomial)
      gcdOverZmodp = gcd(polynomial, powerTerm - x)
      if not isUnit(gcdOverZmodp):
         return False

   return True

We’re just computing the powers iteratively as x^p, (x^p)^p = x^{p^2}, \dots, x^{p^j} and in each step of the loop subtracting x and computing the relevant gcd. The powmod function is just there so that we can reduce the power mod our irreducible polynomial after each multiplication, keeping the degree of the polynomial small and efficient to work with.

Now generating an irreducible polynomial is a little bit harder than testing for one. With a lot of hard work, however, field theorists discovered that irreducible polynomials are quite common. In fact, if you just generate the coefficients of your degree n monic polynomial at random, the chance that you’ll get something irreducible is at least 1/n. So this suggests an obvious randomized algorithm: keep guessing until you find one.

def generateIrreduciblePolynomial(modulus, degree):
   Zp = IntegersModP(modulus)
   Polynomial = polynomialsOver(Zp)

   while True:
      coefficients = [Zp(random.randint(0, modulus-1)) for _ in range(degree)]
      randomMonicPolynomial = Polynomial(coefficients + [Zp(1)])

      if isIrreducible(randomMonicPolynomial, modulus):
         return randomMonicPolynomial

Since the probability of getting an irreducible polynomial is close to 1/n, we expect to require n trials before we find one. Moreover we could give a pretty tight bound on how likely it is to deviate from the expected number of trials. So now we can generate some irreducible polynomials!

>>> F23 = FiniteField(2,3)
>>> generateIrreduciblePolynomial(23, 3)
21 + 12 x^1 + 11 x^2 + 1 x^3

And so now we are well-equipped to generate any finite field we want! It’s just a matter of generating the polynomial and taking a modulus after every operation.

@memoize
def FiniteField(p, m, polynomialModulus=None):
   Zp = IntegersModP(p)
   if m == 1:
      return Zp

   Polynomial = polynomialsOver(Zp)
   if polynomialModulus is None:
      polynomialModulus = generateIrreduciblePolynomial(modulus=p, degree=m)

   class Fq(FieldElement):
      fieldSize = int(p ** m)
      primeSubfield = Zp
      idealGenerator = polynomialModulus
      operatorPrecedence = 3

      def __init__(self, poly):
         if type(poly) is Fq:
            self.poly = poly.poly
         elif type(poly) is int or type(poly) is Zp:
            self.poly = Polynomial([Zp(poly)])
         elif isinstance(poly, Polynomial):
            self.poly = poly % polynomialModulus
         else:
            self.poly = Polynomial([Zp(x) for x in poly]) % polynomialModulus

         self.field = Fq

      @typecheck
      def __add__(self, other): return Fq(self.poly + other.poly)
      @typecheck
      def __sub__(self, other): return Fq(self.poly - other.poly)
      @typecheck
      def __mul__(self, other): return Fq(self.poly * other.poly)
      @typecheck
      def __eq__(self, other): return isinstance(other, Fq) and self.poly == other.poly

      def __pow__(self, n): return Fq(pow(self.poly, n))
      def __neg__(self): return Fq(-self.poly)
      def __abs__(self): return abs(self.poly)
      def __repr__(self): return repr(self.poly) + ' \u2208 ' + self.__class__.__name__

      @typecheck
      def __divmod__(self, divisor):
         q,r = divmod(self.poly, divisor.poly)
         return (Fq(q), Fq(r))

      def inverse(self):
         if self == Fq(0):
            raise ZeroDivisionError

         x,y,d = extendedEuclideanAlgorithm(self.poly, self.idealGenerator)
         return Fq(x) * Fq(d.coefficients[0].inverse())

   Fq.__name__ = 'F_{%d^%d}' % (p,m)
   return Fq

And some examples of using it:

>>> F23 = FiniteField(2,3)
>>> x = F23([1,1])
>>> x
1 + 1 x^1 ∈ F_{2^3}
>>> x*x
1 + 0 x^1 + 1 x^2 ∈ F_{2^3}
>>> x**10
0 + 0 x^1 + 1 x^2 ∈ F_{2^3}
>>> 1 / x
0 + 1 x^1 + 1 x^2 ∈ F_{2^3}
>>> x * (1 / x)
1 ∈ F_{2^3}
>>> k = FiniteField(23, 4)
>>> k.fieldSize
279841
>>> k.idealGenerator
6 + 8 x^1 + 10 x^2 + 10 x^3 + 1 x^4
>>> y
9 + 21 x^1 + 14 x^2 + 12 x^3 ∈ F_{23^4}
>>> y*y
13 + 19 x^1 + 7 x^2 + 14 x^3 ∈ F_{23^4}
>>> y**5 - y
15 + 22 x^1 + 15 x^2 + 5 x^3 ∈ F_{23^4}

And that’s it! Now we can do arithmetic over any finite field we want.

[7] Especially considering that other wacky things happen like this: x^4 +1 is reducible over every finite field!

Some Words on Efficiency

There are a few things that go without stating about this program, but I’ll state them anyway.

The first is that we pay a big efficiency price for being so generic. All the typecasting we’re doing isn’t cheap, and in general cryptography needs to be efficient. For example, if I try to create a finite field of order 104729^{20}, it takes about ten to fifteen seconds to complete. This might not seem so bad for a one-time initialization, but it’s clear that our representation is somewhat bloated. We would display a graph of the expected time to perform various operations in various finite fields, but this post is already way too long.

In general, the larger and more complicated the polynomial you use to define your finite field, the longer operations will take (since dividing by a complicated polynomial is more expensive than dividing by a simple polynomial). For this reason and a few other reasons, a lot of research has gone into efficiently finding irreducible polynomials with, say, only three nonzero terms. Moreover, if we know in advance that we’ll only work over fields of characteristic two we can make a whole lot of additional optimizations. Essentially, all of the arithmetic reduces to really fast bitwise operations, and things like exponentiation can easily be implemented in hardware. But it also seems that the expense coming with large field characteristics corresponds to higher security, so some researchers have tried to meet in the middle an get efficient representations of other field characteristics.

In any case, the real purpose of our implementation in this post is not for efficiency. We care first and foremost about understanding the mathematics, and to have a concrete object to play with and use in the future for other projects. And we have accomplished just that.

Until next time!

(Finite) Fields — A Primer

So far on this blog we’ve given some introductory notes on a few kinds of algebraic structures in mathematics (most notably groups and rings, but also monoids). Fields are the next natural step in the progression.

If the reader is comfortable with rings, then a field is extremely simple to describe: they’re just commutative rings with 0 and 1, where every nonzero element has a multiplicative inverse. We’ll give a list of all of the properties that go into this “simple” definition in a moment, but an even more simple way to describe a field is as a place where “arithmetic makes sense.” That is, you get operations for +,-, \cdot , / which satisfy the expected properties of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. So whatever the objects in your field are (and sometimes they are quite weird objects), they behave like usual numbers in a very concrete sense.

So here’s the official definition of a field. We call a set F a field if it is endowed with two binary operations addition (+) and multiplication (\cdot, or just symbol juxtaposition) that have the following properties:

  • There is an element we call 0 which is the identity for addition.
  • Addition is commutative and associative.
  • Every element a \in F has a corresponding additive inverse b (which may equal a) for which a + b = 0.

These three properties are just the axioms of a (commutative) group, so we continue:

  • There is an element we call 1 (distinct from 0) which is the identity for multiplication.
  • Multiplication is commutative and associative.
  • Every nonzero element a \in F has a corresponding multiplicative inverse b (which may equal a) for which ab = 1.
  • Addition and multiplication distribute across each other as we expect.

If we exclude the existence of multiplicative inverses, these properties make F a commutative ring, and so we have the following chain of inclusions that describes it all

\displaystyle \textup{Fields} \subset \textup{Commutative Rings} \subset \textup{Rings} \subset \textup{Commutative Groups} \subset \textup{Groups}

The standard examples of fields are the real numbers \mathbb{R}, the rationals \mathbb{Q}, and the complex numbers \mathbb{C}. But of course there are many many more. The first natural question to ask about fields is: what can they look like?

For example, can there be any finite fields? A field F which as a set has only finitely many elements?

As we saw in our studies of groups and rings, the answer is yes! The simplest example is the set of integers modulo some prime p. We call them \mathbb{Z} / p \mathbb{Z}, or sometimes just \mathbb{Z}/p for short, and let’s rederive what we know about them now.

As a set, \mathbb{Z}/p consists of the integers \left \{ 0, 1, \dots, p-1 \right \}. The addition and multiplication operations are easy to define, they’re just usual addition and multiplication followed by a modulus. That is, we add by a + b \mod p and multiply with ab \mod p. This thing is clearly a commutative ring (because the integers form a commutative ring), so to show this is a field we need to show that everything has a multiplicative inverse.

There is a nice fact that allows us to do this: an element a has an inverse if and only if the only way for it to divide zero is the trivial way 0a = 0. Here’s a proof. For one direction, suppose a divides zero nontrivially, that is there is some c \neq 0 with ac = 0. Then if a had an inverse b, then 0 = b(ac) = (ba)c = c, but that’s very embarrassing for c because it claimed to be nonzero. Now suppose a only divides zero in the trivial way. Then look at all possible ways to multiply a by other nonzero elements of F. No two can give you the same result because if ax = ay then (without using multiplicative inverses) a(x-y) = 0, but we know that a can only divide zero in the trivial way so x=y. In other words, the map “multiplication by a” is injective. Because the set of nonzero elements of F is finite you have to hit everything (the map is in fact a bijection), and some x will give you ax = 1.

Now let’s use this fact on \mathbb{Z}/p in the obvious way. Since p is a prime, there are no two smaller numbers a, b < p so that ab = p. But in \mathbb{Z}/p the number p is equivalent to zero (mod p)! So \mathbb{Z}/p has no nontrivial zero divisors, and so every element has an inverse, and so it’s a finite field with p elements.

The next question is obvious: can we get finite fields of other sizes? The answer turns out to be yes, but you can’t get finite fields of any size. Let’s see why.

Characteristics and Vector Spaces

Say you have a finite field k (lower-case k is the standard letter for a field, so let’s forget about F). Beacuse the field is finite, if you take 1 and keep adding it to itself you’ll eventually run out of field elements. That is, n = 1 + 1 + \dots + 1 = 0 at some point. How do I know it’s zero and doesn’t keep cycling never hitting zero? Well if at two points n = m \neq 0, then n-m = 0 is a time where you hit zero, contradicting the claim.

Now we define \textup{char}(k), the characteristic of k, to be the smallest n (sums of 1 with itself) for which n = 0. If there is no such n (this can happen if k is infinite, but doesn’t always happen for infinite fields), then we say the characteristic is zero. It would probably make more sense to say the characteristic is infinite, but that’s just the way it is. Of course, for finite fields the characteristic is always positive. So what can we say about this number? We have seen lots of example where it’s prime, but is it always prime? It turns out the answer is yes!

For if ab = n = \textup{char}(k) is composite, then by the minimality of n we get a,b \neq 0, but ab = n = 0. This can’t happen by our above observation, because being a zero divisor means you have no inverse! Contradiction, sucker.

But it might happen that there are elements of k that can’t be written as 1 + 1 + \dots + 1 for any number of terms. We’ll construct examples in a minute (in fact, we’ll classify all finite fields), but we already have a lot of information about what those fields might look like. Indeed, since every field has 1 in it, we just showed that every finite field contains a smaller field (a subfield) of all the ways to add 1 to itself. Since the characteristic is prime, the subfield is a copy of \mathbb{Z}/p for p = \textup{char}(k). We call this special subfield the prime subfield of k.

The relationship between the possible other elements of k and the prime subfield is very neat. Because think about it: if k is your field and F is your prime subfield, then the elements of k can interact with F just like any other field elements. But if we separate k from F (make a separate copy of F), and just think of k as having addition, then the relationship with F is that of a vector space! In fact, whenever you have two fields k \subset k', the latter has the structure of a vector space over the former.

Back to finite fields, k is a vector space over its prime subfield, and now we can impose all the power and might of linear algebra against it. What’s it’s dimension? Finite because k is a finite set! Call the dimension m, then we get a basis v_1, \dots, v_m. Then the crucial part: every element of k has a unique representation in terms of the basis. So they are expanded in the form

\displaystyle f_1v_1 + \dots + f_mv_m

where the f_i come from F. But now, since these are all just field operations, every possible choice for the f_i has to give you a different field element. And how many choices are there for the f_i? Each one has exactly |F| = \textup{char}(k) = p. And so by counting we get that k has p^m many elements.

This is getting exciting quickly, but we have to pace ourselves! This is a constraint on the possible size of a finite field, but can we realize it for all choices of p, m? The answer is again yes, and in the next section we’ll see how.  But reader be warned: the formal way to do it requires a little bit of familiarity with ideals in rings to understand the construction. I’ll try to avoid too much technical stuff, but if you don’t know what an ideal is, you should expect to get lost (it’s okay, that’s the nature of learning new math!).

Constructing All Finite Fields

Let’s describe a construction. Take a finite field k of characteristic p, and say you want to make a field of size p^m. What we need to do is construct a field extension, that is, find a bigger field containing k so that the vector space dimension of our new field over k is exactly m.

What you can do is first form the ring of polynomials with coefficients in k. This ring is usually denoted k[x], and it’s easy to check it’s a ring (polynomial addition and multiplication are defined in the usual way). Now if I were speaking to a mathematician I would say, “From here you take an irreducible monic polynomial p(x) of degree m, and quotient your ring by the principal ideal generated by p. The result is the field we want!”

In less compact terms, the idea is exactly the same as modular arithmetic on integers. Instead of doing arithmetic with integers modulo some prime (an irreducible integer), we’re doing arithmetic with polynomials modulo some irreducible polynomial p(x). Now you see the reason I used p for a polynomial, to highlight the parallel thought process. What I mean by “modulo a polynomial” is that you divide some element f in your ring by p as much as you can, until the degree of the remainder is smaller than the degree of p(x), and that’s the element of your quotient. The Euclidean algorithm guarantees that we can do this no matter what k is (in the formal parlance, k[x] is called a Euclidean domain for this very reason). In still other words, the “quotient structure” tells us that two polynomials f, g \in k[x] are considered to be the same in k[x] / p if and only if f - g is divisible by p. This is actually the same definition for \mathbb{Z}/p, with polynomials replacing numbers, and if you haven’t already you can start to imagine why people decided to study rings in general.

Let’s do a specific example to see what’s going on. Say we’re working with k = \mathbb{Z}/3 and we want to compute a field of size 27 = 3^3. First we need to find a monic irreducible polynomial of degree 3. For now, I just happen to know one: p(x) = x^3 - x + 1. In fact, we can check it’s irreducible, because to be reducible it would have to have a linear factor and hence a root in \mathbb{Z}/3. But it’s easy to see that if you compute p(0), p(1), p(2) and take (mod 3) you never get zero.

So I’m calling this new ring

\displaystyle \frac{\mathbb{Z}/3[x]}{(x^3 - x + 1)}

It happens to be a field, and we can argue it with a whole lot of ring theory. First, we know an irreducible element of this ring is also prime (because the ring is a unique factorization domain), and prime elements generate maximal ideals (because it’s a principal ideal domain), and if you quotient by a maximal ideal you get a field (true of all rings).

But if we want to avoid that kind of argument and just focus on this ring, we can explicitly construct inverses. Say you have a polynomial f(x), and for illustration purposes we’ll choose f(x) = x^4 + x^2 - 1. Now in the quotient ring we could do polynomial long division to find remainders, but another trick is just to notice that the quotient is equivalent to the condition that x^3 = x - 1. So we can reduce f(x) by applying this rule to x^4 = x^3 x to get

\displaystyle f(x) = x^2 + x(x-1) - 1 = 2x^2 - x - 1

Now what’s the inverse of f(x)? Well we need a polynomial g(x) = ax^2 + bx + c whose product with f gives us something which is equivalent to 1, after you reduce by x^3 - x + 1. A few minutes of algebra later and you’ll discover that this is equivalent to the following polynomial being identically 1

\displaystyle (a-b+2c)x^2 + (-3a+b-c)x + (a - 2b - 2c) = 1

In other words, we get a system of linear equations which we need to solve:

\displaystyle \begin{aligned} a & - & b & + & 2c & = 0 \\ -3a & + & b & - & c &= 0 \\ a & - & 2b & - & 2c &= 1 \end{aligned}

And from here you can solve with your favorite linear algebra techniques. This is a good exercise for working in fields, because you get to abuse the prime subfield being characteristic 3 to say terrifying things like -1 = 2 and 6b = 0. The end result is that the inverse polynomial is 2x^2 + x + 1, and if you were really determined you could write a program to compute these linear systems for any input polynomial and ensure they’re all solvable. We prefer the ring theoretic proof.

In any case, it’s clear that taking a polynomial ring like this and quotienting by a monic irreducible polynomial gives you a field. We just control the size of that field by choosing the degree of the irreducible polynomial to our satisfaction. And that’s how we get all finite fields!

One Last Word on Irreducible Polynomials

One thing we’ve avoided is the question of why irreducible monic polynomials exist of all possible degrees m over any \mathbb{Z}/p (and as a consequence we can actually construct finite fields of all possible sizes).

The answer requires a bit of group theory to prove this, but it turns out that the polynomial x^{p^m} - x has all degree m monic irreducible polynomials as factors. But perhaps a better question (for computer scientists) is how do we work over a finite field in practice? One way is to work with polynomial arithmetic as we described above, but this has some downsides: it requires us to compute these irreducible monic polynomials (which doesn’t sound so hard, maybe), to do polynomial long division every time we add, subtract, or multiply, and to compute inverses by solving a linear system.

But we can do better for some special finite fields, say where the characteristic is 2 (smells like binary) or we’re only looking at F_{p^2}. The benefit there is that we aren’t forced to use polynomials. We can come up with some other kind of structure (say, matrices of a special form) which happens to have the same field structure and makes computing operations relatively painless. We’ll see how this is done in the future, and see it applied to cryptography when we continue with our series on elliptic curve cryptography.

Until then!

Elliptic Curves as Python Objects

Last time we saw a geometric version of the algorithm to add points on elliptic curves. We went quite deep into the formal setting for it (projective space \mathbb{P}^2), and we spent a lot of time talking about the right way to define the “zero” object in our elliptic curve so that our issues with vertical lines would disappear.

With that understanding in mind we now finally turn to code, and write classes for curves and points and implement the addition algorithm. As usual, all of the code we wrote in this post is available on this blog’s Github page.

Points and Curves

Every introductory programming student has probably written the following program in some language for a class representing a point.

class Point(object):
    def __init__(self, x, y):
        self.x = x
        self.y = y

It’s the simplest possible nontrivial class: an x and y value initialized by a constructor (and in Python all member variables are public).

We want this class to represent a point on an elliptic curve, and overload the addition and negation operators so that we can do stuff like this:

p1 = Point(3,7)
p2 = Point(4,4)
p3 = p1 + p2

But as we’ve spent quite a while discussing, the addition operators depend on the features of the elliptic curve they’re on (we have to draw lines and intersect it with the curve). There are a few ways we could make this happen, but in order to make the code that uses these classes as simple as possible, we’ll have each point contain a reference to the curve they come from. So we need a curve class.

It’s pretty simple, actually, since the class is just a placeholder for the coefficients of the defining equation. We assume the equation is already in the Weierstrass normal form, but if it weren’t one could perform a whole bunch of algebra to get it in that form (and you can see how convoluted the process is in this short report or page 115 (pdf p. 21) of this book). To be safe, we’ll add a few extra checks to make sure the curve is smooth.

class EllipticCurve(object):
   def __init__(self, a, b):
      # assume we're already in the Weierstrass form
      self.a = a
      self.b = b

      self.discriminant = -16 * (4 * a*a*a + 27 * b * b)
      if not self.isSmooth():
         raise Exception("The curve %s is not smooth!" % self)

   def isSmooth(self):
      return self.discriminant != 0

   def testPoint(self, x, y):
      return y*y == x*x*x + self.a * x + self.b

   def __str__(self):
      return 'y^2 = x^3 + %Gx + %G' % (self.a, self.b)

   def __eq__(self, other):
      return (self.a, self.b) == (other.a, other.b)

And here’s some examples of creating curves

>>> EllipticCurve(a=17, b=1)
y^2 = x^3 + 17x + 1
>>> EllipticCurve(a=0, b=0)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  [...]
Exception: The curve y^2 = x^3 + 0x + 0 is not smooth!

So there we have it. Now when we construct a Point, we add the curve as the extra argument and a safety-check to make sure the point being constructed is on the given elliptic curve.

class Point(object):
   def __init__(self, curve, x, y):
      self.curve = curve # the curve containing this point
      self.x = x
      self.y = y

      if not curve.testPoint(x,y):
         raise Exception("The point %s is not on the given curve %s" % (self, curve))

Note that this last check will serve as a coarse unit test for all of our examples. If we mess up then more likely than not the “added” point won’t be on the curve at all. More precise testing is required to be bullet-proof, of course, but we leave explicit tests to the reader as an excuse to get their hands wet with equations.

Some examples:

>>> c = EllipticCurve(a=1,b=2)
>>> Point(c, 1, 2)
(1, 2)
>>> Point(c, 1, 1)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  [...]
Exception: The point (1, 1) is not on the given curve y^2 = x^3 + 1x + 2

Before we go ahead and implement addition and the related functions, we need to be decide how we want to represent the ideal point [0 : 1 : 0]. We have two options. The first is to do everything in projective coordinates and define a whole system for doing projective algebra. Considering we only have one point to worry about, this seems like overkill (but could be fun). The second option, and the one we’ll choose, is to have a special subclass of Point that represents the ideal point.

class Ideal(Point):
   def __init__(self, curve):
      self.curve = curve

   def __str__(self):
      return "Ideal"

Note the inheritance is denoted by the parenthetical (Point) in the first line. Each function we define on a Point will require a 1-2 line overriding function in this subclass, so we will only need a small amount of extra bookkeeping. For example, negation is quite easy.

class Point(object):
   ...
   def __neg__(self):
      return Point(self.curve, self.x, -self.y)

class Ideal(Point):
   ...
   def __neg__(self):
      return self

Note that Python allows one to override the prefix-minus operation by defining __neg__ on a custom object. There are similar functions for addition (__add__), subtraction, and pretty much every built-in python operation. And of course addition is where things get more interesting. For the ideal point it’s trivial.

class Ideal(Point):
   ...
   def __add__(self, Q):
      return Q

Why does this make sense? Because (as we’ve said last time) the ideal point is the additive identity in the group structure of the curve. So by all of our analysis, P + 0 = 0 + P = P, and the code is satisfyingly short.

For distinct points we have to follow the algorithm we used last time. Remember that the trick was to form the line L(x) passing through the two points being added, substitute that line for y in the elliptic curve, and then figure out the coefficient of x^2 in the resulting polynomial. Then, using the two existing points, we could solve for the third root of the polynomial using Vieta’s formula.

In order to do that, we need to analytically solve for the coefficient of the x^2 term of the equation L(x)^2 = x^3 + ax + b. It’s tedious, but straightforward. First, write

\displaystyle L(x) = \left ( \frac{y_2 - y_1}{x_2 - x_1} \right ) (x - x_1) + y_1

The first step of expanding L(x)^2 gives us

\displaystyle L(x)^2 = y_1^2 + 2y_1 \left ( \frac{y_2 - y_1}{x_2 - x_1} \right ) (x - x_1) + \left [ \left (\frac{y_2 - y_1}{x_2 - x_1} \right ) (x - x_1) \right ]^2

And we notice that the only term containing an x^2 part is the last one. Expanding that gives us

\displaystyle \left ( \frac{y_2 - y_1}{x_2 - x_1} \right )^2 (x^2 - 2xx_1 + x_1^2)

And again we can discard the parts that don’t involve x^2. In other words, if we were to rewrite L(x)^2 = x^3 + ax + b as 0 = x^3 - L(x)^2 + ax + b, we’d expand all the terms and get something that looks like

\displaystyle 0 = x^3 - \left ( \frac{y_2 - y_1}{x_2 - x_1} \right )^2 x^2 + C_1x + C_2

where C_1, C_2 are some constants that we don’t need. Now using Vieta’s formula and calling x_3 the third root we seek, we know that

\displaystyle x_1 + x_2 + x_3 = \left ( \frac{y_2 - y_1}{x_2 - x_1} \right )^2

Which means that x_3 = \left ( \frac{y_2 - y_1}{x_2 - x_1} \right )^2 - x_2 - x_1. Once we have x_3, we can get y_3 from the equation of the line y_3 = L(x_3).

Note that this only works if the two points we’re trying to add are different! The other two cases were if the points were the same or lying on a vertical line. These gotchas will manifest themselves as conditional branches of our add function.

class Point(object):
   ...
   def __add__(self, Q):
      if isinstance(Q, Ideal):
         return self

      x_1, y_1, x_2, y_2 = self.x, self.y, Q.x, Q.y

      if (x_1, y_1) == (x_2, y_2):
         # use the tangent method
         ...
      else:
         if x_1 == x_2:
            return Ideal(self.curve) # vertical line

         # Using Vieta's formula for the sum of the roots
         m = (y_2 - y_1) / (x_2 - x_1)
         x_3 = m*m - x_2 - x_1
         y_3 = m*(x_3 - x_1) + y_1

         return Point(self.curve, x_3, -y_3)

First, we check if the two points are the same, in which case we use the tangent method (which we do next). Supposing the points are different, if their x values are the same then the line is vertical and the third point is the ideal point. Otherwise, we use the formula we defined above. Note the subtle and crucial minus sign at the end! The point (x_3, y_3) is the third point of intersection, but we still have to do the reflection to get the sum of the two points.

Now for the case when the points P, Q are actually the same. We’ll call it P = (x_1, y_1), and we’re trying to find 2P = P+P. As per our algorithm, we compute the tangent line J(x) at P. In order to do this we need just a tiny bit of calculus. To find the slope of the tangent line we implicitly differentiate the equation y^2 = x^3 + ax + b and get

\displaystyle \frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{3x^2 + a}{2y}

The only time we’d get a vertical line is when the denominator is zero (you can verify this by taking limits if you wish), and so y=0 implies that P+P = 0 and we’re done. The fact that this can ever happen for a nonzero P should be surprising to any reader unfamiliar with groups! But without delving into a deep conversation about the different kinds of group structures out there, we’ll have to settle for such nice surprises.

In the other case y \neq 0, we plug in our x,y values into the derivative and read off the slope m as (3x_1^2 + a)/(2y_1). Then using the same point slope formula for a line, we get J(x) = m(x-x_1) + y_1, and we can use the same technique (and the same code!) from the first case to finish.

There is only one minor wrinkle we need to smooth out: can we be sure Vieta’s formula works? In fact, the real problem is this: how do we know that x_1 is a double root of the resulting cubic? Well, this falls out again from that very abstract and powerful theorem of Bezout. There is a lot of technical algebraic geometry (and a very interesting but complicated notion of dimension) hiding behind the curtain here. But for our purposes it says that our tangent line intersects the elliptic curve with multiplicity 2, and this gives us a double root of the corresponding cubic.

And so in the addition function all we need to do is change the slope we’re using. This gives us a nice and short implementation

def __add__(self, Q):
      if isinstance(Q, Ideal):
         return self

      x_1, y_1, x_2, y_2 = self.x, self.y, Q.x, Q.y

      if (x_1, y_1) == (x_2, y_2):
         if y_1 == 0:
            return Ideal(self.curve)

         # slope of the tangent line
         m = (3 * x_1 * x_1 + self.curve.a) / (2 * y_1)
      else:
         if x_1 == x_2:
            return Ideal(self.curve)

         # slope of the secant line
         m = (y_2 - y_1) / (x_2 - x_1)

      x_3 = m*m - x_2 - x_1
      y_3 = m*(x_3 - x_1) + y_1

      return Point(self.curve, x_3, -y_3)

What’s interesting is how little the data of the curve comes into the picture. Nothing depends on b, and only one of the two cases depends on a. This is one reason the Weierstrass normal form is so useful, and it may bite us in the butt later in the few cases we don’t have it (for special number fields).

Here are some examples.

>>> C = EllipticCurve(a=-2,b=4)
>>> P = Point(C, 3, 5)
>>> Q = Point(C, -2, 0)
>>> P+Q
(0.0, -2.0)
>>> Q+P
(0.0, -2.0)
>>> Q+Q
Ideal
>>> P+P
(0.25, 1.875)
>>> P+P+P
Traceback (most recent call last):
  ...
Exception: The point (-1.958677685950413, 0.6348610067618328) is not on the given curve y^2 = x^3 + -2x + 4!

>>> x = -1.958677685950413
>>> y = 0.6348610067618328
>>> y*y - x*x*x + 2*x - 4
-3.9968028886505635e-15

And so we crash headfirst into our first floating point arithmetic issue. We’ll vanquish this monster more permanently later in this series (in fact, we’ll just scrap it entirely and define our own number system!), but for now here’s a quick fix:

>>> import fractions
>>> frac = fractions.Fraction
>>> C = EllipticCurve(a = frac(-2), b = frac(4))
>>> P = Point(C, frac(3), frac(5))
>>> P+P+P
(Fraction(-237, 121), Fraction(845, 1331))

Now that we have addition and negation, the rest of the class is just window dressing. For example, we want to be able to use the subtraction symbol, and so we need to implement __sub__

def __sub__(self, Q):
   return self + -Q

Note that because the Ideal point is a subclass of point, it inherits all of these special functions while it only needs to override __add__ and __neg__. Thank you, polymorphism! The last function we want is a scaling function, which efficiently adds a point to itself n times.

class Point(object):
   ...
   def __mul__(self, n):
      if not isinstance(n, int):
         raise Exception("Can't scale a point by something which isn't an int!")
      else:
            if n < 0:
                return -self * -n
            if n == 0:
                return Ideal(self.curve)
            else:
                Q = self
                R = self if n & 1 == 1 else Ideal(self.curve)

                i = 2
                while i <= n:
                    Q = Q + Q

                    if n & i == i:
                        R = Q + R

                    i = i << 1
   return R

   def __rmul__(self, n):
      return self * n

class Ideal(Point):
    ...
    def __mul__(self, n):
        if not isinstance(n, int):
            raise Exception("Can't scale a point by something which isn't an int!")
        else:
            return self

The scaling function allows us to quickly compute nP = P + P + \dots + P (n times). Indeed, the fact that we can do this more efficiently than performing n additions is what makes elliptic curve cryptography work. We’ll take a deeper look at this in the next post, but for now let’s just say what the algorithm is doing.

Given a number written in binary n = b_kb_{k-1}\dots b_1b_0, we can write nP as

\displaystyle b_0 P + b_1 2P + b_2 4P + \dots + b_k 2^k P

The advantage of this is that we can compute each of the P, 2P, 4P, \dots, 2^kP iteratively using only k additions by multiplying by 2 (adding something to itself) k times. Since the number of bits in n is k= \log(n), we’re getting a huge improvement over n additions.

The algorithm is given above in code, but it’s a simple bit-shifting trick. Just have i be some power of two, shifted by one at the end of every loop. Then start with Q_0 being P, and replace Q_{j+1} = Q_j + Q_j, and in typical programming fashion we drop the indices and overwrite the variable binding at each step (Q = Q+Q). Finally, we have a variable R to which Q_j is added when the j-th bit of n is a 1 (and ignored when it’s 0). The rest is bookkeeping.

Note that __mul__ only allows us to write something like P * n, but the standard notation for scaling is n * P. This is what __rmul__ allows us to do.

We could add many other helper functions, such as ones to allow us to treat points as if they were lists, checking for equality of points, comparison functions to allow one to sort a list of points in lex order, or a function to transform points into more standard types like tuples and lists. We have done a few of these that you can see if you visit the code repository, but we’ll leave flushing out the class as an exercise to the reader.

Some examples:

>>> import fractions
>>> frac = fractions.Fraction
>>> C = EllipticCurve(a = frac(-2), b = frac(4))
>>> P = Point(C, frac(3), frac(5))
>>> Q = Point(C, frac(-2), frac(0))
>>> P-Q
(Fraction(0, 1), Fraction(-2, 1))
>>> P+P+P+P+P
(Fraction(2312883, 1142761), Fraction(-3507297955, 1221611509))
>>> 5*P
(Fraction(2312883, 1142761), Fraction(-3507297955, 1221611509))
>>> Q - 3*P
(Fraction(240, 1), Fraction(3718, 1))
>>> -20*P
(Fraction(872171688955240345797378940145384578112856996417727644408306502486841054959621893457430066791656001, 520783120481946829397143140761792686044102902921369189488390484560995418035368116532220330470490000), Fraction(-27483290931268103431471546265260141280423344817266158619907625209686954671299076160289194864753864983185162878307166869927581148168092234359162702751, 11884621345605454720092065232176302286055268099954516777276277410691669963302621761108166472206145876157873100626715793555129780028801183525093000000))

As one can see, the precision gets very large very quickly. One thing we’ll do to avoid such large numbers (but hopefully not sacrifice security) is to work in finite fields, the simplest version of which is to compute modulo some prime.

So now we have a concrete understanding of the algorithm for adding points on elliptic curves, and a working Python program to do this for rational numbers or floating point numbers (if we want to deal with precision issues). Next time we’ll continue this train of thought and upgrade our program (with very little work!) to work over other simple number fields. Then we’ll delve into the cryptographic issues, and talk about how one might encode messages on a curve and use algebraic operations to encode their messages.

Until then!